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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With over 39.3 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area, as well as the world's thirty-fourth-most-populous subnational entity. California is also the most populated subnational entity in North America, and has its state capital in Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most-populous urban regions, with more than 18.7 million and 9.6 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most-populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most-densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

California's economy, with a gross state product of $3.2 trillion as of 2019, is the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the fifth-largest economy in the world, and the 37th-most populous as of 2020. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1.3 trillion and $1.0 trillion respectively as of 2020), after the New York metropolitan area ($2.0 trillion). The San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita in 2018 ($106,757) among large primary statistical areas, and is home to four of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people.

California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, communication, information, innovation, environmentalism, economics, politics, and entertainment. As a result of the state's diversity and migration, California integrates foods, languages, and traditions from other areas across the country and around the globe. It is considered the origin of the hippie counterculture, beach and car culture, the Internet, and the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California's economy is very diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state.

California shares a border with Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate and monsoon seasonal weather, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. All these factors lead to an enormous demand for water; in total numbers, California is the largest consumer of water in North America. Over time, drought and wildfires have become more frequent; further straining California's water security.

What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of Europeans during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish Empire then claimed and colonized it. In 1804 it was included in Alta California province, within the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.

California Media

21,854 media by topicpage 1 of 219
America with those known parts in that unknowne worlde both people and manner of buildings.
Pascaerte vande Zvyd-zee tussche California, en Ilhas de Ladrones.
Paskaerte van Nova Granada en t'Eylandt California.
No. 15 map of Oregon and Upper California
Life, travels, and adventures in California, [Front cover]
Bellows Butte and Nevada Fall, Yosemite.
Upper Yosemite Falls, Yosemite.
The Grizzly Giant and Mariposa Grove, 33 ft. diam.
Outline - Cathedral Rock - Yosemite.
Vernal and Nevada Fall from Glacier Place, Yosemite.
Bridal Veil, 900 ft. Yosemite.
Mirror View, Yosemite, North Dome.
The North Dome, 3730 ft., Yosemite.
Yosemite Falls 2630 ft., Yosemite.
Royal Arches, Yosemite.
El Capitain - 3600 ft., Yosemite.
North Dome, 3730 ft., Yosemite.
Mt. Starr King, Yosemite.
The Half Dome, Yosemite.
The Domes, Yosemite.
Vernal Falls, 300 ft., Yosemite.
Mirror Lake, Yosemite.
Nevada Fall, 700 ft., Yosemite.
Nevada Fall, 700 ft., Yosemite.
Birds eye view of the city of San Francisco
The Yosemite Falls, from Sentinel Dome.
Vernal Fall.
El Capitan.
Map of the states of California and Nevada
No. 16. Alpine lake, in the Sierra Nevada, California.
Panorama of San Francisco taken from the tower of the house of Mrs. Mark Hopkins
Go and see Hardy Gillard's great American educational panorama, Over the Pacific Railway to California : bird's eye view of the country from New York to San Francisco, 3,500 miles.
The unique map of California
The Sacramento Pike, Squaw's-fish or Yellow belly, Ptychocheilus oregonensis.
Mr. Buckingham with Eph's wife, Elsie Downs, and two children, at Sutter, 1900; Uncle Rob's "Oneida" gold mine, Sutter, Cal., 1900; Same mine; Same, Frank descended 2000 feet into this mine.
4The Unrivalled cook book of Los Angeles
Reading war news aboard streetcar. San Francisco, California
SPARS Olivia Hooker, of Columbus, Ohio, and Aileen Anita Cooke, of Los Angeles, California, aboard the dry-land ship "USS Neversail," during their training at the U.S. Coast Guard Training Station, Manhattan Beach, Brooklyn, New York, 1945
Main office and factory, Alhambra, California.
California stage coach: from a painting by W.H. Hilton, 1876
Map of the United States, the British provinces, Mexico, &c. : showing the routes of the U.S. mail steam packets to California and a plan of the gold region
Baseball players - Cal McVey - Catcher [Boston Red Stockings] 1874
DINNER IN HONOR OF GEN. H.G. GIBSON [held by] THE ASSOCIATED PIONEERS OF THE TERRITORIAL DAYS OF CALIFORNIA [at] "MARTINELLI'S, NEW YORK, NY" (RESTAURANT)
Atlantic City, Double Page Plate No. 12 [Map bounded by California Ave., Atlantic Ocean, Boston Ave., Beach Thoroughfare]
Atlantic City, Double Page Plate No. 11 [Map bounded by Mississippi Ave., Atlantic Ave., California Ave., Beach Thoroughfare]
A high dignitary of the Chinese Six Companies, San Francisco, California.
A high dignitary of the Chinese Six Companies, San Francisco, California.
Chinese aristocrat, San Francisco, California.
A study in Chinatown, San Francisco, California.
A new & exact map of the coast, countries and islands within ye limits of ye South Sea Company, from ye River Aranoca to Terra del Fuego, and from thence through ye South Sea, to ye north part of California &c. with a view of the general and coasting Trade-winds, and perticular draughts of the most important bays, ports &c. ...
ANNUAL DINNER [held by] ST. DAVID'S BENEVOLENT SOCIETY OF THE CITIES OF NEW YORK AND BROOKLYN [at] WESTMINSTER HOTEL (HOT)
The isle of California, New Mexico, Louisiane, the river Misisipi, and the lakes of Canada.
Connecticut.
Winter at Dutch Flat. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
Coaches and carriages
Coaches and carriages
Coaches and carriages, and their manufacture
[View of sea with rock formation.]
[View of man standing at the beach.]
[View of men standing on rocks.]
Donner Lake and snow sheds in California.
Lookout Mountain, Cascades, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
Panorama from Russian Hill, San Francisco. (No. 8.)
Mirror view of El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, Mariposa County, Cal.
Tum water, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
Oregon City, Oregon. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
View on the Columbia, O.R.R. Cascades, Columbia River.
Panorama from Russian Hill, San Francisco. (No. 4.)
Panorama of Portland and the Willamette River, Oregon. No. 6.
The middle Block House, Cascades, Columbia River.
In the Mariposa grove, Mariposa County, Cal.
Mount Hood from the head of the Dalles.
Castle Rock, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
Islands in the Columbia, from the Upper Cascades.
Down the valley, Yosemite Valley, Mariposa County, Cal.
Rooster Rock, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
Cathedral Rocks, 2600 feet, Yosemite Valley, Mariposa County, Cal.
Panorama from Russian Hill, San Francisco. (No. 7.)
Castle Rock, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
Harrison Street, from Rincon Hill, (west) San Francisco.
Castle Rock, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
Cape Horn, near Celilo, Columbia River.
Indian ranch on the Columbia, during salmon fishing.
Bay view, from Montgomery and Union Sts., S.F.
Piwyac, or the Vernal Fall, from the top.
Dalles City, Columbia River, from Sun Set Hill.
Cape Horn, near Celilo, Columbia River.
Moonlight on the Columbia, from the O.R.R. Cascades.
Tutocanula, or El Capitan, 3600 feet. Yosemite Valley, Mariposa County, Cal.
Multnomah Falls, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
The Tooth Bridge, O.R.R. Cascades, Columbia River.
Salmon fishing in the Cascades, Columbia River.
Outline of the Cathedral Rocks, Yosemite Valley, Mariposa County, Cal.
Views from Rincon Hill, San Francisco.
Alcatraz and the Aquila, San Francisco.
North Dome, Royal Arches, and Washington Column, Yosemite Valley, Mariposa County, Cal.
Cape Horn, Columbia River. Sterescope Cards NYPL Collection.
View on the Columbia River, from the O.R.R. Cascades.
Indian Camp, Yosemite Valley, Mariposa County, Cal.
Montgomery St., from Austin's Building, July 4, '65, S.F.
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