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The 19th (nineteenth) century began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900. The term is often used to refer to the 1800s, the century between January 1, 1800 and December 31, 1899. The 19th century was the ninth century of the 2nd millennium.

The 19th century saw large amounts of social change; slavery was abolished, and the First and Second Industrial Revolutions (which also overlap with the 18th and 20th centuries, respectively) led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity. The Islamic gunpowder empires were formally dissolved and European imperialism brought much of South Asia, Southeast Asia and almost all of Africa under colonial rule.

It was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Zulu Kingdom, First French, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire (essentially replacing the Holy Roman Empire), the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Italy and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire, and its Indian allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in the Caucasus, central and far eastern Asia. The Ottoman Empire went through a period of westernization and reform known as the Tanzimat, vastly increasing their control over their core territories in Anatolia and the Near East. Despite this, the sick man of Europe remained in a period of decline, losing territory in the Balkans, Egypt, and North Africa.

The remaining powers in the Indian subcontinent such as the Kingdom of Mysore and its French allies, Nawabs of Bengal, Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire and the princely states of the Nizam of Hyderabad, suffered a massive decline, and their dissatisfaction with British East India Company's rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, marking its dissolution, however, it was later ruled directly by the British Crown through the establishment of the British Raj.

The British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one-quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale.

19th century Media

131,097 media by topicpage 1 of 1311
Le sieur Ballon et la delle. Prévost dans le ballet d'action des Scythes
Unidentified ballet - Salle Marie
Melle Camargo.
Mademoiselle Heinel, the celebrated opera dancer.
Carl Hermann Pfeiffer - Joseph Dorffmeister - Vigano - Terpsichoré
Anne Wagner album

Anne Wagner album

Friendship album kept by Anne Wagner, with entries by her niece, the poet Felicia Dorothea Browne (later Hemans), and other friends and family members, mostly between 1795 and 1805. Contains inscriptions and qu... More

Portrait., portrait
Musical bouquet. La Taglioni polka... The lovers' polka
Pera Mena
Mr. Théleur dans son ballet de Figaro au village
Les trois graces du ballet de
La Taglioni waltz, arranged for the piano forte by W. H. Phipps
La Taglioni polka pour piano par Henri Rosellen
Alamo. San Antonio Texas Stereoscope Card.
Le bal champêtre
Palladino valse par V. S. de Dobrowolski
Caporali Filippo - Salvatore Viganò
Redowa orientale. M'lle. Teresine and M'lle Clementine Rousset
Angiolina Rainoldi, Erste charakter Tänzerinn des k. k. priv: Theaters in der Leopoldstadt
Theodore Dauberval. Ses talens seduisent, son esprit entraine; l'amitié seu le peut apprecier son coeur
[Stage décor for unidentified production]
Ribbon dance
Théodore Dauberval, premiere danseuse de l'Academie de Musique et du spectacle de bordx. Née à Paris le 6 obre. 1760
Theodore Dauberval née a Paris le 25/9bre 1761
Melle. Noblet
Mlle. Noblet, Solo-Tänzerin an der grossen Oper zu Paris: Steindr. v. A. Kneisel
Mde. Hilligsberg in the ballet of Ken-si & Tao, performed for her Benefit the 14th of May 1801.
Jules Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges, directeur de l'Opéra Comique
Mde. Hilligsberg in the ballet of Ken-si & Tao, performed for her Benefit the 14th of May 1801.
M'elle Chameroy reçue par Saint Thomas, l'an onze - 1802
M'elle Chameroy refusée par St. Roch, l'an onze - 1802
Marie Taglioni
Melle. Taglioni
Marie Taglioni
Taglioni in La sylphide
Melle. Taglioni
Marie Taglioni [followed by a facsimile signature]
Mlle. Taglioni, erste Tänzerin der grossen Oper zu Paris
Melle. Taglioni
Taglioni, als Donaumädchen
Taglioni
Jean Michel Moreau - Les Adieux
Ataliba König von Quito im Ballet die Inkas getanzt von H. Corally.
Mme. Queriau dans le ballet des Sauvages de la Floride
Zelika, Königin von Quito im Ballet die Inkas, getanzt von Mde. Corally.
Les Trois Graces du ballet de
Paul Taglioni (fac. sig.): Auguste Hüssener sc
Js. H. D'Egville, esqr., director of the King's Theatre.
"Resolv'd on proclaiming a submarine feast", frontispiece
Js. H. D'Egville, Esqr. Director of the King's Theatre. Engraved by Freeman from an original picture.
Vestris
"And the dignifi'd dolphin, the pattern of fashion", page 12
"His Majesty spouted", page 14
Fanny Elssler in the favourite dance La cachucha. Designed by N. Sarony.
cracovienne, pas dansé dans La gypsy, par Fanny Elssler. arrangee pour le piano L. Gomion. [Lithograph by A. Newsam] P. S. Duval Lither. Phila.
La cachucha, divertissement brillant pour le piano sur un air espagnol dansé à l'Opéra par Melle Fanny Elsler [sic], et composé par Fréd. Burgmüller.
Fanny Elsslers dances. Lith. Endicott, Fulton St.
Mlle Marianna Venturini
Rupture entre Lord-donnant et Miss-prend, danseuse du Théâtre de Londres
Opera sketches. No. 1. Fanny Ellsler [sic]. La Saragoza.
The ball room
Mlle. Taglioni, artiste de l'Académie nationale de musique
Caporali Filippo - Salvatore Viganò
La cachucha as danced by Fanny Elssler. Arranged for the piano forte. Lith. Endicott, N. Y.
gitana, (The new cachoucha), danced by Madlle Fanny Ellsler [sic], in the grand ballet La gitana. at her Majestys Theatres, the courts of Paris & St. Petersburg. Arranged for the piano forte by C. W. Glover. Fleetwood's Lithography, N. Y.
Hark t'is the castanet merrily sounding the Cachucha song. Arranged by Charles Blondell.
Les Graces: inconveniences in quadrille dancing
El jaleo de Jeres (the new cachoucha), danced by Madlle Fanny Elssler in the grand ballet La gitana: at her Majestys Theatre, the courts of Paris & St. Petersburgh. Arranged for the piano forte, by C. W. Glover. [Lithograph by] W. K. Hewitt; N. Currier's Lithography, New York
Taglioni and Elssler's dances. La gitana, La mazurka, La cracovienne, La cachucha. Thayer's lithograph, Boston.
Francis Stanfell papers
The Devonshire minuet
Three Graces; or The three Bums of the Op!ra
J. Aumer Ballet-Meister der R. R. Hof-Theater. Ged. in. Lithogr. Juit
Tognino nel ballo del Sig'r Deschalumeaus, Real Teatro del Fondo
Auguste Vestris - Le doyen des Zéphirs; ou Le roi des voltigeurs
Auguste Vestris - Les coulisses de l'Opéra
Auguste Vestris - Le grand Opéra
Specimens of waltzing
Dos à dos - accidents in quadrille dancing.
Graces: Inconveniences in quadrille dancing
Le Moulinet, or practising quadrille dancing at home for fear of accidents at the ball
Pierson dans Suzanne, ballet de M'r Blache. Acte 1r., scène 1re, Th. de la Porte St. Martin
Manuscript diary of an Italian journey, 23 Jul 1818-Aug 1819.
Armando Vestris nel ballo di Macbeth, da esso composto, musica del Conte di Gallemberg, Barbaja impressario.
Dr. Syntax at the Opera.
Commedia dell'arte - Der Schäffler-Tanz in München
[Contredanses] L'anglaise
[Die Maskerade]
Beaupré dans le ballet de Paul et Virginie, act 2e, scene du miroir.
Pierson et Mlle Aline dans le Sergent polonais
[Taglioni and Camargo.]
Engelmann - Betti (Me. Courtin.) Dans Clary; ballet. Lith: de Engelmann
Le duc de Vendôme (Mr Aumer) dans Les pages du duc de Vendôme, ballet pantomime en 1 acte (Académie Rle. de musique).
Bedouins camp.
Mr. Paul dans Clary, ballet pantomime, Académie royale de musique
Ballroom dancing
Ballroom dancing on British and American 19th-century music covers
[Mlle Levert, rôle de Roxane]
Mlle. Bigottini, Academie Royale de Musique.
Recinto di un bagno, ballo Maometto
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