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tarjumah i shahnamah

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Front cover of binding

Front cover of binding

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

[Frontispiece] Shamsahs = sunburst pattern.

[Frontispiece] Shamsahs = sunburst pattern.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Sarlawh = Frontispiece

Sarlawh = Frontispiece

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Sarlawh = Frontispiece

Sarlawh = Frontispiece

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Gayûmars seated, surrounded by wild beasts, including a lion, a tiger, giraffe, and horned deer.

Gayûmars seated, surrounded by wild beasts, including a lion, a tiger,...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Jamshîd surrounded by members of his court.

Jamshîd surrounded by members of his court.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Zahhak enthroned, surrounded by five courtiers.

Zahhak enthroned, surrounded by five courtiers.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Farîdûn, seated on his throne, surrounded by five courtiers.

Farîdûn, seated on his throne, surrounded by five courtiers.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The three sons of Farîdûn.

The three sons of Farîdûn.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Manûchihr killing his uncle Tûr by spearing him in the back.

Manûchihr killing his uncle Tûr by spearing him in the back.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Manûchihr kills his uncle Salm by striking him in the head with his sword.

Manûchihr kills his uncle Salm by striking him in the head with his sw...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rûdâbah standing on the top of a fortified tower, lets down her long tresses to Zâl.

Rûdâbah standing on the top of a fortified tower, lets down her long t...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The birth of Rustam.

The birth of Rustam.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam, fully armed and wearing his traditional tiger-skin coat and leopard hat, comes out through a gateway to kill an enraged white elephant that has trampled its keeper.

Rustam, fully armed and wearing his traditional tiger-skin coat and le...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The soldiers of Afrâsiyâb battle the Iranians for the first time.

The soldiers of Afrâsiyâb battle the Iranians for the first time.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The text concerns Zâl's fight with the Turanian hero Khazarvân, but the illustration shows Rustam in his traditional costume and mounted on Rakhsh striking off the head of a dragon with his sword.

The text concerns Zâl's fight with the Turanian hero Khazarvân, but th...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Naudar beheaded before Afrâsiyâb.

Naudar beheaded before Afrâsiyâb.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam captures Rakhsh.

Rustam captures Rakhsh.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Kay Khusrau enthroned, surrounded by eight courtiers.

Kay Khusrau enthroned, surrounded by eight courtiers.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam's First Feat: Rakhsh kills a lion while Rustam sleeps.

Rustam's First Feat: Rakhsh kills a lion while Rustam sleeps.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam's Fourth Feat: he kills the sorcerer.

Rustam's Fourth Feat: he kills the sorcerer.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam's Sixth Feat: he kills Arzhang dîv.

Rustam's Sixth Feat: he kills Arzhang dîv.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam's Seven's Feat: he slays the White dîv.

Rustam's Seven's Feat: he slays the White dîv.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam captures the King of Mâzandarân and takes him before the tent of Kay Kâ'ûs.

Rustam captures the King of Mâzandarân and takes him before the tent o...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The king of Hâmâvarân sues Rustam for peace.

The king of Hâmâvarân sues Rustam for peace.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Pîlsam fights with Rustam.

Pîlsam fights with Rustam.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam battles three Turanian soldiers.

Rustam battles three Turanian soldiers.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam comes to the chamber of Tahmînah, daughter of the king of Samarkand.

Rustam comes to the chamber of Tahmînah, daughter of the king of Samar...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Suhrâb before the White Castle, his army behind him.

Suhrâb before the White Castle, his army behind him.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam meets with Kay Kâ'ûs.

Rustam meets with Kay Kâ'ûs.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Suhrâb and Rustam fight.

Suhrâb and Rustam fight.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Suhrâb raises his dagger to kill Rustam in their second combat.

Suhrâb raises his dagger to kill Rustam in their second combat.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam kneels, grieving before the mortally wounded Suhrâb.

Rustam kneels, grieving before the mortally wounded Suhrâb.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam views Suhrâb's tomb.

Rustam views Suhrâb's tomb.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The young Siyâvush, son of Kay Kâ'ûs, on his way from Zâbulistân to his father's court with his army is showered with gold and ambergris by the people.

The young Siyâvush, son of Kay Kâ'ûs, on his way from Zâbulistân to hi...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Afrâsiyâb, who has dreamed of his defeat by the Iranians asks his sages to interpret his dream.

Afrâsiyâb, who has dreamed of his defeat by the Iranians asks his sage...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Afrâsiyâb dictates a letter to Siyâvush.

Afrâsiyâb dictates a letter to Siyâvush.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Siyâvush plays polo with Afrâsiyâb.

Siyâvush plays polo with Afrâsiyâb.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Siyâvush and Afrâsiyâb feasting on the occasion of Siyâvush's marriage to Farangîs.

Siyâvush and Afrâsiyâb feasting on the occasion of Siyâvush's marriage...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Garzîvaz visits Siyâvush at Siyâvushgîrd.

Garzîvaz visits Siyâvush at Siyâvushgîrd.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The troops of Afrâsiyâb attack the Iranian retainers of Siyâvush.

The troops of Afrâsiyâb attack the Iranian retainers of Siyâvush.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Siyâvush beheaded by Gurûy.

Siyâvush beheaded by Gurûy.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The young Kay Khusrau, dressed as a shepherd, is lead before Afrâsiyâb by Pîrân.

The young Kay Khusrau, dressed as a shepherd, is lead before Afrâsiyâb...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam, wearing his leopard hat and armor, lifts Pîlsam off his horse on a spear.

Rustam, wearing his leopard hat and armor, lifts Pîlsam off his horse ...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam, having killed Afrâsiyâb's horse with his spear, attacks the Tûrânian leader.

Rustam, having killed Afrâsiyâb's horse with his spear, attacks the Tû...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Gîv, dressed in a tiger-skin coat and helmet, leads the young Kay Khusrau and his mother Farangîs across the Oxus.

Gîv, dressed in a tiger-skin coat and helmet, leads the young Kay Khus...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Afrâsiyâb and his forces stop at the Oxus; the old boatman has been tied up.

Afrâsiyâb and his forces stop at the Oxus; the old boatman has been ti...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Kay Kâ'ûs receives his grandson Kay Khusrau.

Kay Kâ'ûs receives his grandson Kay Khusrau.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The new king Kay Khusrau talks with nobles of his court.

The new king Kay Khusrau talks with nobles of his court.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Farûd battles an Iranian soldier.

Farûd battles an Iranian soldier.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

A party of Iranian soldiers with drawn swords chases Farûd, who defends himself with a mace.

A party of Iranian soldiers with drawn swords chases Farûd, who defend...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Tazhâv comes to fight with the Iranian army.

Tazhâv comes to fight with the Iranian army.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The Turkish troops attack the forces of Bîzhan.

The Turkish troops attack the forces of Bîzhan.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Gîv pulls Tazhâv off his horse with a noose.

Gîv pulls Tazhâv off his horse with a noose.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The Iranians battle the army of Turan.

The Iranians battle the army of Turan.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Gîv and Tûs fight with Kâmûs.

Gîv and Tûs fight with Kâmûs.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam kills Ashkabûs and his horse.

Rustam kills Ashkabûs and his horse.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam grabs the tail of Chingish's horse.

Rustam grabs the tail of Chingish's horse.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam lifts Shangul from his saddle on his lance.

Rustam lifts Shangul from his saddle on his lance.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam and the soldiers of Iran fight the Tûrânians.

Rustam and the soldiers of Iran fight the Tûrânians.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam attacks Akvân Dîv, who is described in the text as in the guise of an onager of invisible, but here is shown as a dîv.

Rustam attacks Akvân Dîv, who is described in the text as in the guise...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Akvân Dîv flings Rustam into the sea.

Akvân Dîv flings Rustam into the sea.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Bîzhan followed by his companion Gurgîn talks with Manîzha's nurse.

Bîzhan followed by his companion Gurgîn talks with Manîzha's nurse.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Garsîvaz leads Manîzha next to the pit where Bîzhan is imprisoned.

Garsîvaz leads Manîzha next to the pit where Bîzhan is imprisoned.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Kay Khusrau meets with Rustam prior to his going to rescue Bîzhan.

Kay Khusrau meets with Rustam prior to his going to rescue Bîzhan.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam after removing Bîzhan from the pit, bends over to remove his rope.

Rustam after removing Bîzhan from the pit, bends over to remove his ro...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Pîrân leads the Turanian forces against the Iranians.

Pîrân leads the Turanian forces against the Iranians.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Pîrân leads the Turanian forces against the Iranians.

Pîrân leads the Turanian forces against the Iranians.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Kay Khusrau leads the Iranian forces against the Turanians.

Kay Khusrau leads the Iranian forces against the Turanians.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam captures Garsîva, the brother of Afrâsiyâb, and Jahn at the fortress of Gang-dizh.

Rustam captures Garsîva, the brother of Afrâsiyâb, and Jahn at the for...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Kay Khusrau crosses the sea in pursuit of Afrâsiyâb.

Kay Khusrau crosses the sea in pursuit of Afrâsiyâb.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Kay Khusrau executes Afrâsiyâb and his brother.

Kay Khusrau executes Afrâsiyâb and his brother.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Gushtâsp (Gushtâsb) slays a wolf.

Gushtâsp (Gushtâsb) slays a wolf.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Gushtâsp (Gushtâsb) slays a dragon.

Gushtâsp (Gushtâsb) slays a dragon.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The confrontation between the army of Gushtâsp (Gushtâsb) and the army of Arjâsp.

The confrontation between the army of Gushtâsp (Gushtâsb) and the army...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Arjâsp's army lead by his son Kuhram chases the retreating Iranian forces.

Arjâsp's army lead by his son Kuhram chases the retreating Iranian for...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Isfandiyâr rides through the Tûrânian encirclement to the mountain where Gushtâsp and his army are beleaguered.

Isfandiyâr rides through the Tûrânian encirclement to the mountain whe...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Isfandiyâr's Third Exploit: he battles the dragon.

Isfandiyâr's Third Exploit: he battles the dragon.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Isfandiyâr lifts Kuhrâm, one of Arjâsp's captains, above his head by his waistband.

Isfandiyâr lifts Kuhrâm, one of Arjâsp's captains, above his head by h...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Isfandiyâr lays the booty of his Turan conquest before the throne of Gushtâsp.

Isfandiyâr lays the booty of his Turan conquest before the throne of G...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam, roasting an onager, kicks aside the rock pushed by Bahman.

Rustam, roasting an onager, kicks aside the rock pushed by Bahman.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

The meeting of Rustam and Isfandiyâr.

The meeting of Rustam and Isfandiyâr.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam shoots Isfandiyâr in the eyes with a double-pointed arrow.

Rustam shoots Isfandiyâr in the eyes with a double-pointed arrow.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Rustam and Rakhsh dying in a pit filled with spears.

Rustam and Rakhsh dying in a pit filled with spears.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Dârâb, the son of Bahman and grandson of Isfandiyâr, seated in a domed hexagonal pavilion in a courtyard, his mother Queen Humây on a smaller throne, to the left.

Dârâb, the son of Bahman and grandson of Isfandiyâr, seated in a domed...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Dârâ, the son of Dârâb, sits on the throne with supports in the form of gold lions.

Dârâ, the son of Dârâb, sits on the throne with supports in the form o...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Jânûsiyâr and Mâhiyâr, ministers of Dârâ who arranged his murder, are hung from a gibbet and shot with arrows at Iskandar's orders.

Jânûsiyâr and Mâhiyâr, ministers of Dârâ who arranged his murder, are ...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar marches through Hind (India) where the people of the cities open their gates to him.

Iskandar marches through Hind (India) where the people of the cities o...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar kills Fûr of Hind in single combat by cleaving him down the middle with his sword.

Iskandar kills Fûr of Hind in single combat by cleaving him down the m...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar, seated on a platform in a courtyard, dictates a letter to the Khâqân of Chîn.

Iskandar, seated on a platform in a courtyard, dictates a letter to th...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar receives tribute from the Khâqân of Chîn.

Iskandar receives tribute from the Khâqân of Chîn.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar fights with the inhabitants of Zangbâr (Zanzibar).

Iskandar fights with the inhabitants of Zangbâr (Zanzibar).

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Another battle against the soldiers of Zangbâr.

Another battle against the soldiers of Zangbâr.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

A third battle against the soldiers of Zangbâr.

A third battle against the soldiers of Zangbâr.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Qaydrûsh, the son of Qaydâfah the queen of Andalûs, is lead before the vizier Naitkun disguised as Iskandar - who orders his death.

Qaydrûsh, the son of Qaydâfah the queen of Andalûs, is lead before the...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Qaydâfah, queen of Andalûs, recognizes Iskandar, who has come to her court disguised as his own ambassador.

Qaydâfah, queen of Andalûs, recognizes Iskandar, who has come to her c...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar relaxing in his camp.

Iskandar relaxing in his camp.

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar talks with the prophet Khizr about his quest for the Fountain of Life.

Iskandar talks with the prophet Khizr about his quest for the Fountain...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

Iskandar and Khizr (on a mule), both holding shining globes that light their way through the gloom, ride towards the Fountain of Life.

Iskandar and Khizr (on a mule), both holding shining globes that light...

Life of the Prophet Muhammad written at the order of the Mamluk sultan al-Mansûr 'Alâ' al-Dîn 'Alî (d. 778/1376). The work was first illustrated during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Murâd III.

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