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The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (listen)), informally Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Caribbean, forming the largest constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In Europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with those countries and the United Kingdom. In the Caribbean, it consists of three special municipalities: the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba. The country's official language is Dutch, with West Frisian as a secondary official language in the province of Friesland, and English and Papiamentu as secondary official languages in the Caribbean Netherlands. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised regional languages (spoken in the east and southeast respectively), while Sinte Romani and Yiddish are recognised non-territorial languages.

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's most populous city and nominal capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court. The Port of Rotterdam is the busiest seaport in Europe, and the busiest in any country outside East Asia and Southeast Asia, behind only China and Singapore. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital'.

Netherlands literally means "lower countries" in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level, and nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 14th century. Colloquially or informally the Netherlands are occasionally referred to by the pars pro toto Holland. With a population of 17.4 million people, all living within a total area of roughly 41,800 square kilometres (16,100 sq mi)—of which the land area is 33,500 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi)—the Netherlands is the 12th most densely populated country in the world and the 2nd most densely populated country in the European Union, with a density of 521 per square kilometre (1,350/sq mi). Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products (after the United States), owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness.

The Netherlands has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848. The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in Civil Law in 1870, though it was not completely removed until a new constitution was approved in 1983. The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage in 1919, before becoming the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. Its mixed-market advanced economy had the eleventh-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development and quality of life, as well as happiness. In 2019, it ranked tenth on the human development index and fifth on the 2019 World Happiness Index.

Netherlands Media

4,740 media by topicpage 1 of 48
Dordracum vulgo Dortt
Confusion de confusiones, [Title page]
De Texel Stroom met de gaten vant Marsdiep. Caarte de Mase, ende het Goereesche gat.
Cust van Hollant tusschen de Maes ende Texel.
Demonstration of the New firefighting equipment within a burning townhouse.
Fire in the Elandsstraat, July 27, 1679.
During the fire in the Amsterdam ropewalks.
Ruins after the fire in the Amsterdam ropewalks.
The Burning of the Old Town Hall, in Amsterdam, July 7, 1652.
Aftermath of a townhouse fire on the Herengracht. April 25-26, 1683.
Leisler, Jacob. New York. Letter from N.N. to a friend in Amsterdam, relating to the execution of Leisler and his son-in-law
Law, als een tweede Don-Quichot, op Sanches graauwtje zit ten spot
Bespiegeling voor de geldzugtige wereld, in 't begin op-en ondergang van den actiehandel
Orden de Ros-Asanah y Kipur por estillo corriente seguido sin bolver de una aotra parte ... , [Title page]
De Vrede, als uit den hemel nederdalende, vertoond by het weder openen van dan Amsteld. Schouwburg
Aiguade de l'Astrolabe au port du Roi Georges. (N.elle Hollande.).
Nille. Hollande. Naturels du port du Roi Georges, Nille. Hollande. Naturels de la Baie Jervis.
Havitants du port du Roi Georges. (Nelle. Hollande.).
Le Hâvre aux Huîtres. dans le Port du Roi Georges. (Nelle. Hollande.).
Baie Jervis. (Nouvelle Hollande.).
Baie Jervis. (Nouvelle Hollande.) Les marins de l'Astrolabe partagent leur péche avec les naturels.
Nlle. Hollande. Cabanes du port du Roi Georges. (3 pieds de haut.), Cabanes de la baie Jervis. (6 pieds de haut.)., Nlle. Zélande. Cabanes de l'anse  de l' Astrolabe. (3 pieds de haut.), Cabanesde l'anse des toviens.
Vue de la Rivière des Français, au port du Roi Georges á 4 milles de son embouchure. (Nouvelle Hollande.).
Nelle. Hollande: Ile des Kanguroos, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Femmea de l' tk, 6. Naturel de van diemen, Port Jervis, 7. Bam, 8. Djacamel.
Nelle. Hollande. (Port du Roi Georges.): 1. Patêt. 2. Yalepouol son fils. 3.4. Naturels qui vinrenl á bord les premiers. 5. Petêt II. 6. Mokorê.
De prinselijke afkomst der Nederlandsche vlag gehandhaafd ...
The Severn, S. E. Cor. 73d St. and Amsterdam Ave.; The Van Dyck, N. E. Cor. 72d St., Amsterdam Ave. and Broadway.
The Brittania, 527 Cathedral Parkway, between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue.
The Illinois and Michigan, Nos. 511 and 517 West 113th Street, between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The Louisiana, 507 West 113th Street, between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The Tennessee and  Arizona, 508 and 514 West 114th Street, between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The Dreadnaught, northwest corner Amsterdam Avenue and Cathedral Parkway (110th Street). Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The San Maria, No. 520 West 114th Street, between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
Walnut kas inlaid and with painted medallions of Delft ware. The Pruyn Collection, Albany, U.S.A.
No. 127 West 82d Street. Between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues.
The Wesley. 158 West 81st Street, Between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues.
A chart of the Eems of Old West Eems and East Eems; A chart of the FLIE and part of Ameland gat
Habit of a nobleman of the United Provinces in 1588. Noble des Provinces-Unies.
Habit of a physician in Holland in 1640. Médecin Hollandois.
Habit of a countess of Holland and Zealand in 1200 [sic] Comtesse de Hollande et de Zelande.
Another habit of a countess of Holland and Zealand in 1480. Comtesse de Hollande et de Zeland.
A description of the towne of Mannados: or New Amsterdam, as it was in September 1661 . . .1664
Fort Hamilton. Town of New Utrecht, Kings Co. L.I.
New Utrecht. Kings Co. - Bath, Town on New Utrecht, Kings Co.
Bayridge. Town of New Utrecht, Kings Co.
Unionville Guntherville, Town of Gravesend, Kings Co. - Gravesend, Town of Gravesend, Kings Co. - Part of Town of Gravesend, Kings Co. - Flatlands, Town of Flatlands, Kings Co. - New Utrecht, Tn of New Utrecht, Kings Co.
DINNER [held by] S.S. AMSTERDAM [at]  (SS;.)
DINNER [held by] S.S.AMSTERDAM [at] [AT SEA ?] (STEAMSHIP)
DINNER [held by] AMSTEL-HOTEL [at] "[AMSTERDAM, HOLLAND ?]" (HOTEL)
The King College Apartments, northwest corner Amsterdam Avenue and 122nd Street.
St. John Court, southwest corner Amsterdam Avenue and 111th Street; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The St. Germaine. Southwest Corner Amsterdam Avenue & Eighty-sixth Street.
Hats
A new map of the Netherlands or Low Countries, shewing their principal divisions, cities, towns, rivers &c.
Les provinces des pays-bas Catholiques, ou a most exact map of Flanders or Austrian Netherlands &c.
Habit of a Dutch soldier in 1588. Soldat Hollandois.
Habit of Elizabeth Queen of England as protectoress of the states of Holland. L'habillement d'Elisabeth reine d'Angleterre comme protectrice des Etats del la Hollande.
Vue prise a tondano. De la maison du resident hollandais. (Ile Célebes.)
Vue du fort hollandais. à Manado. (Molugues.).
Maison de l'agent  hollandais, à likoupang. (Célèbes.).
Hillel Hall, northwest corner Amsterdam Avenue and 109th Street; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors; Chester Hall, northwest corner Amsterdam Avenue and 107th Street; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
First floor plan of the 'Sigfried'; Upper floor plan of the 'Sigfried', House at southwest corner of 112th Street and Amsterdam Avenue ; Diagram of lot dimensions.
The Bryn Mawr, southeast corner Amsterdam Avenue and 121th Street; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The Colonial, Munroe and Cragsmoor, West 115th Street between Amsterdam and Morningside Avenues; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The Bellfonte, Nos. 514 to 518 West 143rd Street, between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
Block front (Fantana, Huldana, Helena, Sigfried) , Amsterdam Avenue between 111th and 112th Streets.
Typical floor plan of The Netherlands.
The Netherlands. Eighty-sixth Street, adjoining Riverside Drive.
St. John Court. S. W. Corner Amsterdam Avenue and 111th Street.
Herman Moll - The Spanish Netherlands.
Holland and the other provinces of the United Netherlands.
An ancient habit of a nobleman of Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'un noble de Frise.
An ancient habit of a matron of Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'une matrone de Frise.
Mammifères: 1. BAM naturel de Jerwis Nouv-Hollande; 2. Jackmel naturel de Jerwis, Nlle. Hollande; 3. Naturel du port Roi George, Nelle. Hollande; 4. 5. Homme et femme de Jerwis.
Steam engine machinery; first fire engine, Holland, 1660; diving bell
Transportation facilties, England: Thames Tunnel excavation, lighthouses; dykes of Holland.
Burlington Apartments, 505-517 West 134th Street, between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
The Pantheon Apartments, Amsterdam Avenue block front 114th to 115th Streets; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
Modern apartments, 73-75 Manhattan Street, near Amsterdam Avenue; Plan of first floor; Plan of upper floors.
Miscellaneous apartments. Palisade Court, northwest corner 139th Street and Broadway; Typical floor plan; Tintern and Teviot, 2465-2471 Broadway between 91st and 92nd Streets; Typical floor plan; The Trinidad and Yucatan, 501 West 138th Street, northwest corner 138th Street and Amsterdam Avenue; Typical floor plan.
Die grosse Ueberschwemmung in Holland. Die Bewohner der Insel Marken werden in Sicherheit gebracht.
An ancient habit of a maid servant in Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'une servante de Frise.
Habit of a Dutch skipper in 1770. Matelot Hollandois.
An ancient habit of a noble virgin of Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'une vierge noble de Frise.
An ancient habit of a countrywoman of Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'une paysanne de Frise.
An ancient habit of a virgin of Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'une vierge de Frise.
An ancient habit of a countryman of Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'un paysan de Frise.
Habit of a lady in Holland in 1640. D'ame d'Holland.
An ancient habit of a countrywoman of Friesland. Parûre ancienne d'une paysanne de Frise.
Henry Wynkoop, member of the Continental Congress.
Henry Wynkoop.
The Seven United Provinces comprehending Holland, Friesland, Groningen, Owerissel, Gelders, Utrecht and Zeeland
Felix Bracquemond - L'Avenue de Dordrecht.
Felix Bracquemond - Portrait d'une vieille femme.
Felix Bracquemond - Le grand village., Adriaen van Ostade
Felix Bracquemond - Habitation rustique [d'après Ad. van Ostade].
Felix Bracquemond - Christ aux roseaux.
Felix Bracquemond - Christ aux roseaux.
Felix Bracquemond - Le cabaret., Adriaen van Ostade
Afbeelding van het prachtige bal, op. de zaal van het Stadhuis, gegenen door de Ed. Achtb. Regering der stad Amsteldam [second line of legend cropped]
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