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5 BCE: Pheroras, before being poisoned, has entrusted his wife with poison to kill his brother, King Herod, or so Herod has heard. Pheroras's wife throws herself from the roof but survives. Here, Herod tells Pheroras's wife that she will not be punished if she tells the truth about the poison.

70 CE: The Jews invade the Roman camp, but Titus repels them.

69 CE: Domitian, son of Vespasian, miraculously escapes the carnage in Rome.

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4 BCE: Herod lies on his deathbed as disease pervades his body. He has a raging fever, dropsy, abdominal pain and inflammation, gangrene of the genitals, asthma and convulsions.

67 CE: The insurgents of Tarichaeae throw themselves on the mercy of Vespasian, but his lieutenants advise him to execute them.

70 CE: The rival factions of Simon son of Gioras and John of Giscala forget their mutual hatred and unite in battle against the Romans.

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4 BCE: Disciples of certain sages of Jerusalem tear down the image of a golden eagle, which Herod, in violation of Jewish law, had erected on the gate of the Temple.

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48 CE: Roman troops stand guard on the roof of the Temple portico to prevent rioting among the crowds assembled for Passover. One of the soldiers moons the Jews, and the infuriated crowd riots. 30,000 people are trampled to death in the ensuing violence.

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67 CE: The emperor Nero, hearing of the reverses in Judea, is alarmed, but affects indignation.

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70 CE: The parties of both John of Giscala and Simon son of Gioras set fire to buildings stocked with provisions, exacerbating the famine that besets Jerusalem.

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68 CE: The Zealots institute show trials. They accuse an eminent citizen, Zacharias son of Baruch, of treason, but the judges acquit Zacharias.

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Colophon: "Anthoine Verard humblement te recorde ce quil ail tient de toi pardon por provocquer ta grant misericorde de tous pecheurs faire grace et pardon" (Anthoine Verard humbly requests your forbearance and forgiveness for all his errors).

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70 CE: Sabinus and eleven Romans scale the walls of Jerusalem but are overcome by the Jews defending the tower.

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67 CE: Vespasian subdues the fortresses and towns of the Galilee that were still in revolt.

38 BCE: After Joseph, brother of Herod, is slain, Antigonus II cuts the head off the corpse.

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67 CE: The rebels of Scythopolis, having fled to Tarichaeae in the Galilee, draw the Romans into a naval battle on Lake Tiberias.

68 CE: Niger the Peraean, a Jewish officer, exhibits his wounds as evidence of his courage in the campaigns against the Romans. Nevertheless, he is dragged through the city by the Zealots and then murdered.

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70 CE: With severe famine in Jerusalem, a Jewish fighter against Rome slaughters a starving civilian.

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130 BCE: Hyrcanus I battles his brother-in-law, Ptolemy, who has tortured Hyrcanus's mother and brothers. Jewish War 1.2 [Niese 1.54-57]

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43 BCE: Antipater is poisoned at a feast.

67 CE: Josephus, realizing that Jotapata cannot withstand the Roman attacks, contemplates flight. The citizens of Jotapata beg Josephus not to leave them to the mercy of the Romans.

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165 BCE: Judah Maccabee leads an insurgency against Antiochus IV and expels his troops from the temple precincts and citadel of Jerusalem.

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67 CE: Vespasian advances with his army to Scythopolis and is welcomed with open arms by the populace.

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10 BCE: A letter by Alexander implicates him in the conspiracy to murder his father, Herod. Alexander protests that the letter was forged by the king's secretary, Diophantus.

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